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Year Author Title Journal
2011 Steingrube, D.S.; Schulz, E.; Binhammer, T.; Gaarde, M.B.; Couairon, A.; Morgner, U. & Kovacev, M. High-order harmonic generation directly from a filament New Journal of Physics
Vol. 13 (4) , pp. 043022  
Abstract: The synthesis of isolated attosecond pulses (IAPs) in the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) spectral region has opened up the shortest time scales for time-resolved studies. It relies on the generation of high-order harmonics (HHG) from high-power few-cycle infrared (IR) laser pulses. Here we explore experimentally a new and simple route to IAP generation directly from 35 fs IR pulses that undergo filamentation in argon. Spectral broadening, self-shortening of the IR pulse and HHG are realized in a single stage, reducing the cost and experimental effort for easier spreading of attosecond sources. We observe continuous XUV spectra supporting IAPs, emerging directly from the filament via a truncating pinhole to vacuum. The extremely short absorption length of the XUV radiation makes it a highly local probe for studying the elusive filamentation dynamics and in particular provides an experimental diagnostic of short-lived spikes in laser intensity. The excellent agreement with numerical simulations suggests the formation of a single-cycle pulse in the filament.
BibTeX:
@article{Steingrube2011,
  author = {D S Steingrube and E Schulz and T Binhammer and M B Gaarde and A Couairon and U Morgner and M Kovacev},
  title = {High-order harmonic generation directly from a filament},
  journal = {New Journal of Physics},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {13},
  number = {4},
  pages = {043022},
  url = {http://stacks.iop.org/1367-2630/13/i=4/a=043022},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1367-2630/13/4/043022}
}
					
2011 Steingrube, S.; Breitenstein, O.; Ramspeck, K.; Glunz, S.; Schenk, A. & Altermatt, P.P. Explanation of commonly observed shunt currents in c-Si solar cells by means of recombination statistics beyond the Shockley-Read-Hall approximation J. Appl. Phys
Vol. 110 , pp. 014515  
Abstract: The current-voltage (I–V) characteristics of industrially fabricated, crystalline silicon solar cells are often influenced by non-linear shunts that originate from localized, highly disturbed regions and cause ideality factors n > 2. We show that recombination within such locations needs model descriptions that go beyond the Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) approximation, because the density of defects is so high that recombination does not occur via isolated, but coupled defect states. We use a variant of coupled defect level (CDL) recombination, the donor-acceptor-pair (DAP) recombination, but via deep levels (as opposed to shallow levels). With this model, we quantitatively reproduce the I–V curves of solar cells that we subjected to various degrees of cleaving, laser scribing or diamond scratching to form shunt locations in a controlled manner. The suggested model explains the transition from ideality factors n < 2 to n > 2 when going from low to high defect densities. We also explain the non-saturating reverse I–V characteristics. We show that an additional source of currents with n > 2 is SRH recombination in an inversion layer that extends from the front p-n junction to the rear contact along the cell’s edge or along a micro-crack.
Keywords: deep levels, defect states, electron-hole recombination, elemental semiconductors, microcracks, p-n junctions, silicon, solar cells
BibTeX:
				@article{Steingrube2011a,
				  author = {Silke Steingrube and Ottwin Breitenstein and Klaus Ramspeck and Stefan Glunz and Andreas Schenk and Pietro P. Altermatt},
				  title = {Explanation of commonly observed shunt currents in c-Si solar cells by means of recombination statistics beyond the Shockley-Read-Hall approximation},
				  journal = {J. Appl. Phys},
				  year = {2011},
				  volume = {110},
				  pages = {014515}
				  url = {http://link.aip.org/link/doi/10.1063/1.3607310}
				}
					
2011 Steingrube, S.; Brendel, R.; Altermatt, P.P. Limits to model amphoteric defect recombination via SRH statistics physica status solidi (a)
doi: 10.1002/pssa.201127277  
Abstract: In semiconductor device modeling, it is common practice to approximate recombination via amphoteric defects by means of the Shockley–Read–Hall (SRH) theory. We show by means of a mathematically rigorous treatment that this approximation is only justified if: (i) the defect distribution of amphoteric defects is approximated by two equally-shaped energy distributions of acceptor- and donor-like defect states which are separated in energy by the effective correlation energy, (ii) the ratios of the capture cross-sections (CCS) of free carriers for charged and neutral defect states are strongly asymmetric, (iii) the correlation energy is positive, and (iv) the defect density has its maximum between the quasi-Fermi levels (QFLs) for the trapped carriers (TQFLs). In particular, we investigate this kind of SRH approximation for the case of injection-dependent recombination at the interface between crystalline silicon (c-Si) and amorphous silicon (a-Si:H), a system that has recently been used to passivate the surface of Si solar cells. It is shown that care must be taken when applying this SRH approximation at low excess carrier densities Δn, e.g., at pn-junctions between a-Si:H and c-Si or at low illumination levels, because the defect distributions may peak outside the TQFLs. We apply a self-consistent model, which includes the band bending in c-Si caused by both light-induced, trapped charges in the a-Si:H layer and at the a-Si/c-Si interface. We show that these trapped charges significantly influence the recombination rate and should be taken into account, as opposed to common practice.
Keywords: amorphous silicon; amphoteric defects; Shockley-Read-Hall; solar cells
BibTeX:
@article{Steingrube2011aa,
  author = {Silke Steingrube and Rolf Brendel and Pietro P. Altermatt},
  title = {Limits to model amphoteric defect recombination via SRH statistics},
  journal = {phys. stat. sol. (a)},
  year = {2011},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pssa.201127277},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pssa.201127277}

}
					
2010 Steingrube, S.; Steingrube, D.S.; Brendel, R. & Altermatt, P.P. Comprehensive model for recombination at a-Si:H/c-Si interfaces based on amphoteric defects physica status solidi (c)
Vol. 7 (2) , pp. 276-279  
Abstract: Today, most fabricated solar cells are made of crystalline Silicon (c-Si) wafers. Electronic passivation of defect states at interfaces is a major issue in recent cell development. A current topic is surface passivation using hydrogenated amorphous Silicon (a-Si:H). The purpose of this paper is to describe recombination at the a-Si:H/c-Si interface by a comprehensive model considering recombination via amphoteric defects. The density of defect states at the interface (Dit) is modeled via the Defect-Pool-Model(DPM), adapted to a-Si:H/c-Si interfaces by fitting to published experimental data. Since our model accounts for the amphoteric nature of defects at the hetero-interface, and approximates Dit by a physical model, parameters are physical more meaningful and allow for an investigation of measured recombination properties. A numerical comparison between different recombination models shows that using amphoteric recombination statistics is more generally applicable. The purpose is to apply the model in numerical semiconductor device simulators for accurate modeling of a-Si:H passivated c-Si solar cells. Limitations of cell performance due to interface recombination can then be traced back to physical parameters which helps to optimize cell designs.
Keywords: charge carriers: generation, recombination, lifetime, and trapping; surface states, band structure, electron density of states; photoelectric conversion; for solar cells
BibTeX:
@article{Steingrube2010,
  author = {S Steingrube and D S Steingrube and R Brendel and P P Altermatt},
  title = {Comprehensive model for recombination at a-Si:H/c-Si interfaces based on amphoteric defects},
  journal = {physica status solidi (c)},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {7},
  number = {2},
  pages = {276-279},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pssc.200982486},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pssc.200982486}
}
					
2010 Steingrube, S.; Timme, M.; Wörgötter, F. & Manoonpong, P. Self-organized adaptation of a simple neural circuit enables complex robot behaviour Nature Physics
Vol. 6 , pp. 224 - 230  
Abstract: Controlling sensori-motor systems in higher animals or complex robots is a challenging combinatorial problem, because many sensory signals need to be simultaneously coordinated into a broad behavioural spectrum. To rapidly interact with the environment, this control needs to be fast and adaptive. Present robotic solutions operate with limited autonomy and are mostly restricted to few behavioural patterns. Here we introduce chaos control as a new strategy to generate complex behaviour of an autonomous robot. In the presented system, 18 sensors drive 18 motors by means of a simple neural control circuit, thereby generating 11 basic behavioural patterns (for example, orienting, taxis, self-protection and various gaits) and their combinations. The control signal quickly and reversibly adapts to new situations and also enables learning and synaptic long-term storage of behaviourally useful motor responses. Thus, such neural control provides a powerful yet simple way to self-organize versatile behaviours in autonomous agents with many degrees of freedom.
Keywords: central pattern generators; walking machines; leg movements; quadruped walking; body dynamics; locomotion; networks; chaos; coordination; systems
BibTeX:
@article{Steingrube2010a,
  author = {S Steingrube and M Timme and F Wörgötter and P Manoonpong},
  title = {Self-organized adaptation of a simple neural circuit enables complex robot behaviour},
  journal = {Nature Physics},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {6},
  pages = {224 - 230},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nphys1508},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nphys1508}
}
					
2010 Steingrube, S.; Altermatt, P.P.; Schmidt, J. & Brendel, R. Modelling c-Si/SiNx interface recombination by surface damage PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI-RAPID RESEARCH LETTERS
Vol. 4 (3-4) , pp. 91-93  
Abstract: Amorphous silicon nitride (SiNx) layers are widely used for the electronic passivation of surfaces in Si solar cells. However, measurements have consistently shown that the effective recombination velocity S-eff increases with decreasing excess carrier density Delta n &lt; 1015 cm-3 at acceptor densities below 1017 cm-3. This poor performance is not observed at surfaces diffused with dopants, which requires an additional high temperature process during cell fabrication. Understanding the poor performance at low Delta n may therefore provide strate gies for cost reduction in solar cell processing. This paper presents a detailed quantitative analysis of this effect. It is concluded that the lifetime is reduced to a value near 1 vs in a 100-500 nm thin region underneath the SiNx layer. We predict, that to avoid this effect, a mere tenfold reduction of the density of defect states in this region is sufficient. A possible explanation of this effect are defects caused by H-termination during wafer pretreatment.
Keywords: chemical-vapor-deposition; plasma silicon-nitride; space-charge; passivation; hydrogen; field
BibTeX:
@article{Steingrube2010b,
  author = {Silke Steingrube and Pietro P. Altermatt and Jan Schmidt and Rolf Brendel},
  title = {Modelling c-Si/SiNx interface recombination by surface damage},
  journal = {PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI-RAPID RESEARCH LETTERS},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {4},
  number = {3-4},
  pages = {91-93},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pssr.201004023},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pssr.201004023}
}
					
2010 Steingrube, S.; Altermatt, P.P.; Steingrube, D.S.; Schmidt, J. & Brendel, R. Interpretation of recombination at c-Si/SiN$_x$ interfaces by surface damage Journal of Applied Physics
Vol. 108 , pp. 014506  
Abstract: The measured effective surface recombination velocity Seff at the interface between crystalline p-type silicon (p-Si) and amorphous silicon nitride (SiN_x) layers increases with decreasing excess carrier density Delta n<1015 cm-3 at dopant densities below 1017 cm-3. If such an interface is incorporated into Si solar cells, it causes their performance to deteriorate under low-injection conditions. With the present knowledge, this effect can neither be experimentally avoided nor fully understood. In this paper, Seff is theoretically reproduced in both p-type and n-type Si at all relevant Delta n and all relevant dopant densities. The model incorporates a reduction in the Shockley–Read–Hall lifetime in the Si bulk near the interface, called the surface damage region (SDR). All of the parameters of the model are physically meaningful, and a parametrization is given for numerical device modeling. The model predicts that a ten-fold reduction in the density of defect states within the SDR is sufficient to weaken this undesirable effect to the extent that undiffused surfaces can be incorporated in Si solar cells. This may serve to simplify their fabrication procedures. We further discuss possible causes of the SDR and suggest implications for experiments.
Keywords: charge carriers: generation, recombination, lifetime, and trapping;
charge carriers: generation, recombination, lifetime, trapping, mean free paths;
amorphous semiconductors, metallic glasses, glasses;
galvanomagnetic and other magnetotransport effects;
amorphous semiconductors;
inorganic compounds
BibTeX:
@article{Steingrube2010c,
  author = {Silke Steingrube and Pietro P. Altermatt and Daniel S. Steingrube and Jan Schmidt and Rolf Brendel},
  title = {Interpretation of recombination at c-Si/SiN$_x$ interfaces by surface damage},
  journal = {Journal of Applied Physics},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {108},
  pages = {014506},
  url = {http://link.aip.org/link/JAPIAU/v108/i1/p014506/s1},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3437643}
}
					
2009 Schulz, E.; Binhammer, T.; Steingrube, D.S.; Rausch, S.; Kovacev, M. & Morgner, U. Intense few-cycle laser pulses from self-compression in a self-guiding filament Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt.
Vol. 95 (2) , pp. 269–272  
Abstract: Sub-10-fs-pulses are generated by self-compression in a noble gas filament. Using input pulses from a Ti:sapphire amplifier system with an energy of about 1.5 mJ at a repetition rate of 3 kHz and a pulse duration of 30 fs self-compressed sub-10-fs pulses with energies of about 0.3 mJ have been generated. These pulses are characterized with spectral phase interferometry for direct electrical-field reconstruction (SPIDER). Depending on the laser parameters, we observe a significant change in the chirp of the white-light. The spectral distribution of the outcoming beam profile is measured to distinguish the white-light core from the surrounding halo.
Keywords: filamentation, self-compression, self-guiding
BibTeX:
@article{Schulz2009,
  author = {E Schulz and T Binhammer and D S Steingrube and S Rausch and M Kovacev and U Morgner},
  title = {Intense few-cycle laser pulses from self-compression in a self-guiding filament},
  journal = {Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt.},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {95},
  number = {2},
  pages = {269–272},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00340-009-3456-5},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00340-009-3456-5}
}
					
2009 Steingrube, D.S.; Vockerodt, T.; Schulz, E.; Morgner, U. & Kovačev, M. Phase matching of high-order harmonics in a semi-infinite gas cell Phys. Rev. A
Vol. 80 (4) , pp. 043819  
Abstract: Phase matching of high-order harmonic generation is investigated experimentally for various parameters in a semi-infinite gas-cell (SIGC) geometry. The optimized harmonic yield is identified using two different noble gases (Xe and He) and its parameter dependence is studied in a systematic way. Beside the straightforward setup of the SIGC, this geometry promises a high photon flux due to a large interaction region. Moreover, since the experimental parameters within this cell are known accurately, direct comparison to simulations is performed. Spectral splitting and blueshift of high-order harmonics are observed.
Keywords: phase-matching, high-order harmonic generation, semi-infinite gas cell
BibTeX:
@article{Steingrube2009,
  author = {Steingrube, Daniel S. and Vockerodt, Tobias and Schulz, Emilia and Morgner, Uwe and Kovačev, Milutin},
  title = {Phase matching of high-order harmonics in a semi-infinite gas cell},
  journal = {Phys. Rev. A},
  publisher = {American Physical Society},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {80},
  number = {4},
  pages = {043819},
  url = {http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevA.80.043819},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.80.043819}
}
					
2009 Steingrube, D.S.; Vockerodt, T.; Morgner, U. & Kovacev, M. Phase-matching high-order harmonics in a semi-infinite gas cell geometry Proc. Lasers and Electro-Optics 2009 and the European Quantum Electronics Conference. CLEO Europe - EQEC 2009. European Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics , pp. 1  
Abstract: Here we report a detailed study of the generation conditions considering the phase-matching in a low ionization potential atom (Xenon) and a high one (Helium). We investigate standard high-harmonic phase-matching parameters like the focusing position, pressure dependence and the intensity dependence in order to optimize the harmonic yield in this gas cell geometry. Harmonics are generated by a fundamental driving field with 30 fs pulse duration, 3 kHz repetition rate and up to 2 mJ of pulse energy. An intensity modulation of the harmonics as a function of the focus position is observed which indicates different phase-matching regions. The generation of intense attosecond pulses with a regular temporal structure depends critically on different quantum path contributions and their correlation by phase-matching the harmonic emission process.
Keywords: atom-photon collisions, helium, intensity modulation, ionisation potential, optical focusing, optical harmonic generation, optical phase matching, optical pulse generation, quantum optics, self-phase modulation, xenon, he, xe, focus position function, harmonic emission process, harmonic generation, harmonics intensity modulation, intense attosecond pulse generation, ionization potential atom, phase-matching high-order harmonics, quantum path contribution, self-phase modulation effects, semiinfinite gas cell geometry, time 30 fs
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Steingrube2009a,
  author = {Steingrube, D. S. and Vockerodt, T. and Morgner, U. and Kovacev, M.},
  title = {Phase-matching high-order harmonics in a semi-infinite gas cell geometry},
  booktitle = {Proc. Lasers and Electro-Optics 2009 and the European Quantum Electronics Conference. CLEO Europe - EQEC 2009. European Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics},
  year = {2009},
  pages = {1},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/CLEOE-EQEC.2009.5196313},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/CLEOE-EQEC.2009.5196313}
}
					
2009 Steingrube, D.S.; Schulz, E.; Binhammer, T.; Vockerodt, T.; Morgner, U. & Kovacev, M. Generation of high-order harmonics with ultra-short pulses from filamentation Opt. Express
Vol. 17 (18) , pp. 16177-16182  
Abstract: 7-fs-pulses with 0.3 mJ are obtained after filamentation in argon and compression by double-chirped-mirrors. These pulses are used to generate high-order harmonics in a semi-infinite gas cell in different noble gases. Spectral broadening of high-order harmonics in xenon and argon is observed. In neon, an extended continuous cut-off region down to 10 nm (124 eV) is observed which is to the best of our knowledge the highest cut-off energy obtained by filamented pulses. Our result suggests the feasibility of single attosecond-pulse-generation at both high photon flux and high cut-off energy.
Keywords: filamentation, high-order harmonic generation, semi-infinite gas cell
BibTeX:
@article{Steingrube2009b,
  author = {Daniel S Steingrube and Emilia Schulz and Thomas Binhammer and Tobias Vockerodt and Uwe Morgner and Milutin Kovacev},
  title = {Generation of high-order harmonics with ultra-short pulses from filamentation},
  journal = {Opt. Express},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {17},
  number = {18},
  pages = {16177-16182},
  url = {http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-18-16177},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.17.016177}
}
					
2008 Brendel, R.; Dreissigacker, S.; Harder, N.-P. & Altermatt, P.P. Theory of analyzing free energy losses in solar cells Appl. Phys. Lett.
Vol. 93 (17) , pp. 173503  
Abstract: We make up the free energy balance for thermalized electrons and holes in a solar cell. Equations for the loss rates of free energy due to recombination and transport of carriers are derived. The well known expression for Joule heat dissipation also holds for the free energy loss by diffusive transport. All loss rates have units of mW/cm2. Thus transport losses become directly comparable in magnitude to recombination losses. The latter are usually quantified in mA/cm2 rather than mW/cm2. The impact of various loss mechanisms on the power output of the cell, also in mW/cm2, becomes directly apparent.
Keywords: cooling; diffusion; electron-hole recombination; solar cells
BibTeX:
@article{brendel2008,
  author = {R. Brendel and S. Dreissigacker and N.-P. Harder and P. P. Altermatt},
  title = {Theory of analyzing free energy losses in solar cells},
  journal = {Appl. Phys. Lett.},
  publisher = {AIP},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {93},
  number = {17},
  pages = {173503},
  url = {http://link.aip.org/link/?APL/93/173503/1},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3006053}
}
					
2007 Hunziker, L.E.; Ihli, C. & Steingrube, D.S. Miniaturization and Power Scaling of Fundamental Mode Optically Pumped Semiconductor Lasers IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electron.
Vol. 13 (3) , pp. 610-618  
Abstract: We demonstrate that TEM00 mode optically pumped semiconductor lasers (OPSLs) may be scaled to tens of watts in the visible wavelength range using laser cavities an order of magnitude smaller than those of conventional solid-state lasers. In particular, we show that the output power may be scaled linearly by increasing the number of optically pumped semiconductor (OPS) devices and derive a unique solution for a dynamically stable resonator that is independent of the physical cavity length and internal design. This enables miniaturization of high-power OPS lasers to ~1 cm footprints without compromising many resonator performance metrics. The results are applied to demonstrate a 15-mm footprint cavity producing 7.3-W output at 486 nm, and a cavity with two OPS chips with 24-W output at 561 nm. In addition, we show that efficient TEM00 mode performance may be realized using free-space-coupled, high-power laser diode bars. Single-frequency operation is also demonstrated, and an rms noise level less than 0.01% is achieved.
Keywords: laser beams, laser cavity resonators, laser modes, laser noise, optical pumping, semiconductor lasers, tem00 mode performance, dynamically stable resonator, high-power laser diode bars, laser cavities, miniaturization, optically pumped semiconductor lasers, power 24 w, power 7.3 w, power scaling, rms noise level, single-frequency operation, size 15 mm, wavelength 486 nm, wavelength 561 nm, blue laser, tem00 mode solid state laser, green laser, optically pumped semiconductor laser (opsl), vertical external cavity surface-emitting laser (vecsel)
BibTeX:
@article{Hunziker2007,
  author = {L E Hunziker and C Ihli and D S Steingrube},
  title = {Miniaturization and Power Scaling of Fundamental Mode Optically Pumped Semiconductor Lasers},
  journal = {IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electron.},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {13},
  number = {3},
  pages = {610-618},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JSTQE.2007.896631},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JSTQE.2007.896631}
}
					
2006 Henriksson, K.; Vörtler, K.; Dreißigacker, S.; Nordlund, K. & Keinonen, J. Sticking of atomic hydrogen on the tungsten (0 0 1) surface Surf. Sci.
Vol. 600 (16) , pp. 3167-3174  
Abstract: The sticking of hydrogen atoms with kinetic energies in the range 0.003-10 eV on a clean (0 0 1) tungsten surface has been investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. The atoms are found to stick to the surface at 0 and 300 K, with a sticking coefficient smaller than 0.6 for kinetic energies higher than 3 meV. The adsorption sites for H on the W(0 0 1) surface are also presented. The dominant site is in perfect agreement with the experimentally found bridge site.
Keywords: sticking
BibTeX:
@article{Henriksson2006,
  author = {K.O.E. Henriksson and K. Vörtler and S. Dreißigacker and K. Nordlund and J. Keinonen},
  title = {Sticking of atomic hydrogen on the tungsten (0 0 1) surface},
  journal = {Surf. Sci.},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {600},
  number = {16},
  pages = {3167-3174},
  url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6TVX-4K7X866-2/2/c1531b0e6691e07e3a3d567abe4f468c},
  doi = {DOI: 10.1016/j.susc.2006.06.001}
}
					
2006 Hunziker, L.E.; Ihli, C.; Steingrube, D.S.; Reed, E. & Hodgson, N. Size-scaling of TEM00 mode optically-pumped semiconductor lasers
Vol. 6100 Solid State Lasers XV: Technology and Devices , pp. 10001-10001  
Abstract: The use of a dynamically stable telescopic cavity to compress the cavity length of intra-cavity doubled, TEM00 mode, optically-pumped semiconductor lasers (OPSL's) is evaluated. We find that the cavity length. may be adjusted (approximately) between the Rayleigh lengths of the mode sizes on the end mirrors without sacrificing output power or dynamic stability. Consequently, for a 10 W OPSL, the length may be scaled between about I and 100 cm. In addition, we calculate that in all respects, the cavity stability range and misalignment sensitivity maintain practical values to about 1 cm cavity length. These results are applied to demonstrate OPSL's producing TEM00 mode outputs of 11.5 and 7.3 W at 531 and 486 nm with resonator footprints as small as 15 mm.
Keywords: green lasers; blue lasers; tem00 mode solid state lasers; optically pumped serniconductor lasers; vertical external cavity surface emitting laser
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Hunziker2006,
  author = {Lukas E. Hunziker and Chris Ihli and Daniel S. Steingrube and Edward Reed and Norman Hodgson},
  title = {Size-scaling of TEM00 mode optically-pumped semiconductor lasers},
  booktitle = {Solid State Lasers XV: Technology and Devices},
  publisher = {SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING, 1000 20TH ST, PO BOX 10, BELLINGHAM, WA 98227-0010 USA},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {6100},
  pages = {10001-10001},
  url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.659290},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.659290}
}
					

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